Cash book is a record of all the transactions related to cash. Examples include: expenses paid in cash, revenue collected in cash, payments made to creditors, payments received from debtors, cash deposited in bank, withdrawn of cash for office use, etc.
Now let us try to understand how a journal works. With the help of journal entries, we book each and every financial transaction of the organization chronically without considering how many times the same type of entry has been repeated in that particular accounting year or period.
“The process of recording a transaction in a journal is called journalizing the transactions.”
---Meigs and Meigs and Johnson
Journal is a book that is maintained on a daily basis for recording all the financial entries of the day. Passing the entries is called journal entry. Journal entries are passed according to rules of debit and credit of double entry system.
To compare the results of different years, it is necessary that accounting rules, principles, conventions and accounting concepts for similar transactions are followed consistently and continuously. Reliability of financial statements may be lost, if frequent changes are observed in accounting treatment. For example, if a firm chooses cost or market price whichever is lower method for stock valuation and written down value method for depreciation to fixed assets, it should be followed consistently and continuously.